Economic aspects of consumption of meat and meat products by population of Kazakhstan
Belgibayeva zhanat zhakupovna, doctor of economic sciences, professor;
Tursynbayeva Aiman Abilgazinovna, candidate of economic sciences, associateprofessor
Kazakh national research technical university after K.I.Satpayev (Kazakhstan)
Abstract.The modern level of consumption of meat and meat products, and also prospects of ensuring food security of Kazakhstan are considered in the article. On the basis of statistical data the analysis of dynamics of production and consumption of meat and meat products per capita is carried out. The factors influencing on providing the population with a traditional food product, potential opportunities of increasing production and the priority directions of the solution of this problem are proved.
Keywords: model; diet; balance; deficiency; differentiation.
Бельгибаева Жанат Жакуповна, доктор экономических наук, профессор; ТурсынбаеваАйманАбылгазиновна, кандидат экономических наук, доцент, Казахский национальный исследовательский технический университет им. К.И.Сатпаева (Казахстан)
Аннотация. В статье рассмотрены современный уровень потребления мяса и мясопродуктов, а также перспективы обеспечения продовольственной безопасности Казахстана. На основе статистических данных проведен анализ динамики производства и потребления мяса и мясопродуктов на душу населения. Обоснованы факторы, влияющие на обеспечение населения традиционным продуктом питания, потенциальные возможности наращивания объемов производства и приоритетные направления решения этой проблемы.
Ключевые слова: модель; рацион; баланс; дефицит; дифференциация.
Statement of a problem. In Kazakhstan meat and meat products belong to traditional food. However their consumption still lags behind physiological norms that is reflected on health, working capacity and life expectancy of the population of the country. In this regard, a general population needs ensuring physical and economic availability of meat and meat products due to large-scale use of advanced technologies, introductions of innovations in all stages of a manufacturing lead time and development of business,in order to increase the level of employment and the income of the population.
Research objective is to increase the level of consumption of meat and meat products and on this basis to improve quality of life of the population of Kazakhstan.
Main results of the research. In Kazakhstan the level of ensuring physical and economic availability of meat and meat products to a general population belongs to one of the major indicators characterizing a social and economic situation in the country. Moreover, natural climatic conditions, a geographicalarrangement,existence of necessary resources allow not only to provide completely all Kazakhstan citizens with environmentally friendly quality products of food of national production, but also to export part of the grown-up production to foreign countries.
Consumption of meat and meat products is some kind of indicator of economic wellbeing of the population of Kazakhstan. If to consider that meat products held a dominant position in a food allowance of native persons since ancient times, value of carrying out scientific researches considerably increases in this area.
Meanwhile, in the analysis of the level of consumption of meat and meat products per capita the systematic changes reflecting, in fact, an economic situation in the country are observed. So, during the pre-market period it was per capita consumed 71 kg of meat and meat products at physiological norm of 82 kg (Table1).
The enterprises of the meat industry functioning during this period differed in the large sizes and made the wide range of meat products. For providing with necessary raw material resources raw zones were formed round them. Meat and meat products were physically and economically available to a wide range of republic population.
with transition to the market relations the situation changed radically. Outputs and consumption of meat and meat products decreased, differentiation of the population on the level of the income and consumption of meat products went deep. There appeared a category of persons with the income lower than a size of a subsistence minimum at which in a food allowance the lack of proteins of an animal origin is observed.
So, according to the Committee on statistics of the Ministry of national economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the specific weight of the population with the income lower than a size of a subsistence minimum made 2,8% in 2014, that is lower than the cost of a food basket for 0,1%. when comparing indicators – levels of consumption of meat and meat products per capita in a section of social groups — essential distinction in structure of a food allowance and, especially, its meat part is noticeable. In 2014 the population with the income higher than a size of a subsistence minimum counting on 1 member of a household a month consumed 5,9 kg of meat and meat products, and the population with the income lower than the size of a subsistence minimum – only 2,9 kg of meat and meat products (A standard of living of population in Kazakhstan. Statistical collection.2010-2014. — Astana.Committee on statistics of Ministry of national economy of Republic of Kazakhstan — 2015-106 p. ). Apparently, according to the provided data the difference in level of consumption of meat and meat products made more than twice.
In the analysis of consumption of meat and meat products by the population of Kazakhstan, positive dynamics (table 1) is traced in recent years.
Dynamics of production and consumption of meat and meat products per capita in Kazakhstan, kg
Source: Committee on statistics of Ministry of national economy of Republic of Kazakhstan [1,2,3]
As can be seen from data of table 1 in 2014 66,2 kg of meat and meat products that is more than a level of previous year on 0,3 kg and more than a level of 2000 respectively on 22,2 kg were consumed per capita. However, consumption level still does not meet the recommended standard, both by quantity, and on structure.
In Kazakhstan, due to natural climatic conditions, traditions of food, way of life, practically all citizens of the republic are consumers of meat and meat products. Specific weight of vegetarians is insignificant. For this reason, it is very important to solve the problem of food security, by providing inhabitants with meat and meat products on the recommended norm of consumption.
Meanwhile, the developed model of food of residents of Kazakhstan is peculiar, food traditions of almost all nationalities living in the country are intertwined. Moreover, the modern technologies which allowed expanding the range of foodstuff also affected changing of flavoring habits and a way of living. As for consumption of meat and meat products, here along with traditional national meat products, new products developed by local technologists and released by the meat-processing enterprises are consumed.
Thus, it is possible to allocate the following factors having noticeable impact on level of consumption of meat and meat products: average per capita monetary income (APCMI) of the population; production of meat and meat products in the country; model of food consumption of the population; priorities of consumption of food; level of prices for meat products; natural climatic regional distinctions; religious views and traditions; maintenance of a healthy lifestyle; employment of women and in general change of tenor of life; development of a food consumption system outdoors.
Meat and meat products satisfy physiological needs of the person. In the conditions of crisis the population first of all limits costs of acquisition of nonfoods, and food are in systematic demand. generally, here we speak about satisfaction of solvent demand for meat and meat products which is formed depending on existence of funds for their acquisition.
Average per capita monetary income influences and formation of a tendency in consumption of meat and meat products (table 2).
According to table 2 it is shown that for the analyzed 5 years, consumption of fowl, sausages, beef has increased. Consumption of pork and mutton was practically stabilized and exposed to smaller change. If to compare purchasing power of beef and halfdrawn hens, the difference found is almost twice. Popularity of hens is explained by rather low prices, smaller expenses of time for preparation, dietary properties of fowl. Pork is used generally as raw materials at preparation of sausages and consumed by a certain part of the population for which it is a traditional food product. Beef belongs to a universal type of meat from which the wide range of dishes prepares and her consumers in the republic are practically all inhabitants, no matter of a national identity. In recent years the interest in the national meat products from a horse-flesh prepared on technology “halal” increases. Financially secure Kazakhstan citizens caring about their health, try to limit consumption of fat products, giving a priority to more dietary types of meat. In this plan the increase in consumption of a horseflesh is observed, in spite of the fact that the horse-flesh belongs to more expensive types of meat.
Tendencies in consumption of meat and meat products by their types
Source: Committee on statistics of Ministry of national economy of Republic of Kazakhstan 
Due to the circumstance that food of a livestock origin is more expensive than food of a phytogenesis, priorities of consumption of the population of the country undergo changes. Especially these transformations are noticeable at persons which income is lower than the cost of a food basket. Their model of food is unbalanced, with prevalence of proteins of a phytogenesis and at observed deficiency of proteins of an animal origin.
Tendencies in consumption of meat and meat products in turn affect a situation in branches of a meat subcomplex of agro-industrial complex (agrarian and industrial complex) of Kazakhstan. The most profitable branches, with less long manufacturing lead time, develop more dynamically. For example, growth rates of production of fowl advance growth rates of production of mutton, beef, pork.
It should be noted that meat products of Kazakhstan belong to environmentally friendly, grown up on natural pasturable grounds. The local population possesses skills in cultivation of cattle and courting behind it, in preparation of meat products. Native persons from ancient times led a nomadic life, competently approached questions of rational use of fodder grounds. In general, there are all prerequisites not only for providing the population of the country with qualitative meat and meat products on physiological norm of consumption, but also for export to neighboring states.
Conclusion.For a solution of the problem of ensuring physical and economic availability of meat and meat products the integrated approach providing the accelerated accumulation of growth rates of outputs, increase of competitiveness of a domestic production and increase in the income of the population due to creation of additional workplaces, developments of business, providing a full employment is necessary for a general population of Kazakhstan.
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