Жетписбаева Мухтарима Каскатаевна, кандидат экономических наук, профессор,
Карагандинский экономический университет Казпотребсоюза, Караганда (Республика Казахстан)
Телеуова Айман Бауыржановна, магистрант специальности «Государственное и местное управление», Карагандинский экономический университет Казпотребсоюза, Караганда
Summary:The article consider with education as one of the key components of human capital and the nation’s capital.This paper analyzes the concepts such as “knowledge economy” and the concept of “knowledge society”.Education is regarded as a strategically important area of human activity that provides an innovative breakthrough in the economy and its competitiveness.We investigate the problem of lifelong learning in the Republic of Kazakhstan; also have been proved the role of education as a source of economic growth.
Key words: education; human capital; economic growth; lifelong learning; higher education.
Аннотация: В статье рассматривается образование как один из ключевых составляющих человеческого капитала и капитала нации. В данной работе анализируются такие понятия как «экономика знаний» и концепция «общество знаний». Образование рассматривается как стратегически важная сфера человеческой деятельности, которая обеспечивает инновационный прорыв в экономике и ее конкурентоспособность. В работе исследуется проблема непрерывного образования в Республике Казахстан, доказана роль образования как источника экономического роста страны.
Ключевые слова: образование; человеческий капитал; экономический рост; непрерывное образование; высшее образование.
Educational factors of competitiveness of human capital play a special role. At all times, knowledge, abilities and skills of the person affected on the productive forces of society, determined the course of economic development. The educational capital is considered as a structural component of competitive human capital. The process of formation of educational capital occurs in the field of education.
Thus, the human capital of the nation is created through education. This fact has been confirmed by many scientists-economists from the classical economic theory to the representatives of the various areas of economic theory of modernity.
Education is a source of economic growth. This relationship is not difficult to trace. The level of education attained by the individual directly affects the level of income and social status. This relationship has long been traced in developed countries. The link between income and level of education also takes place in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In the labor market are more sought-after workers with higher education than with the medium — professional. There is a relationship with the existing experience and professional qualifications. The more educated and professional worker is, the higher the chances of getting a high-paying job. getting an education is always related to the costs, but these costs can be classified as an investment. The investments in training pay off in the future, the difference in the wages of the individual having the higher education and individual, having no higher education.
Naturally, a high level of individual income allows him to increase consumption. Consumption, in turn, through the multiplier effect contributes to economic growth in the country.
The most important change is the appearance and the development of knowledge economy of the modern economy. The term “knowledge economy” was introduced into scientific circulation by Austrian American scientist Fritz Machlup in 1962 . Now this term, along with the term “economy based on knowledge”, is used to determine the type of economy in which knowledge plays a crucial role, and the production of knowledge is a source of growth. 90% of the total volume of knowledge possessed by the person received during the last 30 years . This is the most obvious signs of the transition from an economy based on natural resources to the knowledge-based economy.
The knowledge economy is characterized by the transformation of the process of creation and dissemination of new knowledge in the framework of creating economic value. The value of knowledge has increased even more with the development of globalization. Knowledge acts as a factor of economic development and enhances the competitiveness of individual regions and countries. The emergence of the concept of “knowledge society” is inextricably linked with the development of the parameters of the knowledge economy. This concept asserts that knowledge is not only contribute to economic growth, but also stimulate structural changes in society, in the way people live. Knowledge becomes the main stimulus for the development of all sectors in such economy.
Innovative development and technological restructuring of the national economic system of the Republic of Kazakhstan is based on intellectual resources. In this regard, the main priorities in the modernization of Kazakhstan’s economy are the science, health, culture and education. According to A.A.Alimbaeva: “The costs of education, culture and health care are not a primitive deduction from existing resources; there is the process of investing in tomorrow” .
The transition to an innovative and diversified economy and implementation of breakthrough projects of industrial-innovative development of Kazakhstan largely depends on the quality of human capital, based on the education and professionalism of human resources.
Education is regarded as a strategically important area of human activity that provides an innovative breakthrough in the economy and its competitiveness in modern society.
The concept of this idea has become a landmark and defining for education. That is why the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan NursultanNazarbayev in his appeals to the people with the idea of the new man gives a clear direction of growth of human capital through education. In this format, the dominant aspect of social modernization is represented by the triad of ideology “Education-science-innovation”. In other words, in the present conditions it is a man and his foundation of values is the first condition for any development. And here we note the consonance of ideas as a challenge and a field for new priorities, which guided the modern educational community: continuing education, ensuring its attractiveness and increase access to quality education.
Actually, there is needed a system of vocational training in market economy conditions. That training system has to meet the demands of rapidly changing labor market conditions, the information society, contributed to the continuous improvement of competence of specialists.
Structural changes in the economy, the laws “On science”, “On Status of Nazarbayev University, Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools”, changes and additions to the existing law “On education”, State Program of Education Development for 2011-2020, these documents provide a significant variation in educational professional programs and the possibility of diversification of educational paths and deadlines for their completion, actualize the problem of continuous education.
In today’s world conditions the flow of information is so great that train future specialists for life impossible. Therefore, the surest way out for this situation is not education for life; the solution is education throughout life. The meaning of this thesis reflects the concept of “lifelong learning” and “learning society”, introduced by UNESCO , as the concept of “recurrent education” (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) . Study of the problem of continuous education is reflected in numerous publications of Kazakhstani scientists. Scientists see the strategic objective of continuing education in close connection with the general objectives of the renewal of society.
Researchers are considering a system of lifelong learning as the most important condition for improving the quality of training, while emphasizing that:
- Lifelong learning is “one of the most important conditions designed to ensure the cooperation of all the factors of human education; constant component of human activity, focused on the acquisition of knowledge, development of abilities of his personality, including the formation of the ability to learn” ;
- A lifelong learning framework “provides a consistent receiving different level of education and training in accordance with the interests of the individual and the needs of society in the modern social and economic conditions … The main purpose of continuing education is a constant creative renewal, development and perfection of each person throughout life”. The authors emphasize the presence of contradictions “between the dynamically changing socio-economic environment characterized by ever-increasing amount of knowledge about modern technologies, high refresh rate of the knowledge and the inability of the traditional educational system with a high level of efficiency to reveal the innate ability of man and give him a level of education that it could not only safely but also comfortably integrated into the social system of the society, without any form of preparation, carrying out continuous updating of knowledge throughout life” ;
- The effectiveness of continuing professional education provided by the following components:
- The final and intermediate objectives of continuing professional education, which serve as the general model of a professional;
- The means of achieving the relevant educational objectives: the continuity of the state standards, educational programs, methods, techniques, methods, content and form of technology;
- A clear definition of criteria for assessing the level of professional development and the development of special means of diagnosis;
- Control over the process of professional development and performance of his professional activity .
Summarizing the position of scholars we note that the system of lifelong learning is a leading factor in social progress and individual development, individual potential disclosure at all periods of its development. Lifelong learning, in our opinion, is the basis for successful adaptation to the socio-economic conditions and the requirements of professional activity.
On the one hand, the system of professional education as part of a lifelong learning system of human education is one of the main institutions of socialization and the formation of a harmoniously developed, active, creative personality. On the other hand, professional education system ensures the reproduction and development of human resources of society. Professional education is an essential prerequisite for innovative socio-economic development of all spheres of public life.
Higher education is the determining factor that affects the quality of human capital. The annual human capital growth by 1% in higher education enhances the growth rate of gDP per capita by 5.9% .
In recent years there were significant changes have been carried out that contribute to the development of human capital in national education system. There are training students, masters and PhD on “Bolashak” program, pupils in the “Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools”, harmonizing the structure of education to the international standard classification, the introduction of a three-level training of specialists: bachelor — master — doctor PhD, entry into the European educational space, joining the Bologna process, the adoption of the Law “On Science”, academic and scientific mobility, carrying out procedures for the accreditation of universities, the implementation of the State Program of Development of Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020, aimed at a new quality of education at all levels of training from pre-school to post-graduate, and others.
Information Services group “Interfax” has won the tender of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in the rankings of universities of the CIS countries, georgia and the Baltic States (2013-2014 year). Ranking includes the 100 best universities of the CIS countries, georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. This rating includes 4 Kazakhstani universities: Kazakh National University by Al-Farabi (20th position), the Eurasian National University by gumilyov (51th position), Kazakh National Technical University by Satpayev (71th position), the Kazakh-British Technical University (81th position) .
Rate included three areas in which evaluated universities: education, research and international activities. The educational activities of the university regarded reputation in the academic community, employers and HR services, qualitative composition of the academic staff. The research unit evaluates such factors as the scientific productivity of the university in the Russian language and international space and the cited publication. Assessment of the international activities carried out by the analysis of two indicators: student mobility and university cooperation in research with scientists from foreign countries.
The basis of the formation of competitive human capital is education. Indicators of education of the population in Kazakhstan are rather high. According to the Statistics Agency of Kazakhstan for the literacy rate in 2014 was 99.6%.
According to this indicator, Kazakhstan occupy the 14th place among 177 countries in the world and 1st in Asia. Kazakhstan took 29th place out of 139 countries on the coverage of secondary education in the global Competitiveness Index 2013-2014.
Improving the quality of higher education and human capital is of strategic importance for Kazakhstan. This is due to the wall that the country is experiencing a demographic crisis, which will increase in parallel implementation of the program of forced industrial-innovative development (FIID).
For effective formation of human capital and the level of intellectualization of Kazakhstan’s society it is necessary to intensify the development of university education. This refers to the improvement of the quality according to the requirements of an innovative economy, and integration requirements with fundamental science.
The role of higher education in the formation of human capital is difficult to overestimate. The main imperative of modern civilization progress is exactly the comprehensive development of higher education, is caused by the accumulation and the creation of the state of competitive human capital. world practice proved that the investments in human capital the most effective. That this is due to a new quality of economic growth, which was confirmed in the last decades in developed countries.
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